Four figure mathematical tables: comprising logarithmic and trigonometrical tables, and tables of squares, square roots, and reciprocals Edition: [2d ed.]. KNEC Four Figure Elementary Mathematical tables 6th edition. Books, Stationery, Computers, Laptops and more. Buy online and get free delivery on orders. each printed four-figure mantissa is given the corresponding cologarithm decimal part. . Standard Four-Figure Mathematical Tables by L. M. Milne-Thomson.


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Four Figure Mathematical Tables by Frank Castle (Paperback, 1923)

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The anti-log tables worked similarly. The table is navigated in the same way as the log table.

Four Figure Mathematical Tables by J. T. Bottomley (2010, Paperback)

More finely graded values could be interpolated at a pinch. More advanced sets of tables also included higher differences to facilitate this, though four figure mathematical tables everyday tables stuck to just mean first differences.


Typically, there were also more than just logs and anti-logs in a set of tables. All kinds of commonly used functions could be listed.

Four Figure Mathematical Tables by Frank Castle (Paperback, ) | eBay

How sines were found in the days before calculators. Tables like this rivalled the bible in sales before being discontinued in the second half of the 20th century.

All of the tables above are taken from the old Irish state mathematical tables — since discontinued. However, this answer four figure mathematical tables only accurate to four decimal places.

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If one wanted greater accuracy, one could interpolate linearly as follows: From the Bernegger table: For tables with greater precision more digits per valuehigher order interpolation may be needed to get full accuracy.

To understand the importance of accuracy in applications like navigation note that at sea level one minute of arc along the Earth's equator or a meridian indeed, any great circle equals approximately one nautical mile 1. History and use[ edit ] The first tables of trigonometric functions known to four figure mathematical tables made were by Hipparchus c.

Along with the surviving table of Ptolemy c. Four figure mathematical tables were continuous attempts to improve the accuracy of this table, culminating in the discovery of the power series expansions of the sine and cosine functions by Madhava of Sangamagrama c.

Four figure log tables

Tables containing common logarithms base were extensively used in computations prior to the advent of computers and calculators because logarithms convert problems of four figure mathematical tables and division into much easier addition and subtraction problems. Base logarithms have an four figure mathematical tables property that is unique and useful: The common logarithm of numbers greater than one that differ only by a factor of a power of ten all have the same fractional part, known as the mantissa.

Tables of common logarithms typically included only the mantissas ; the integer part of the logarithm, known as the characteristic, could easily be determined by counting digits in the original number.

The fractional part of the common logarithm of numbers greater than zero but less than one is just 1 minus the mantissa of the same number with the decimal point shifted to the right of the first non-zero digit.

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